Vedic Age Notes – Ancient Indian History

The Vedic Age is an important part of ancient Indian history. The Vedas were composed in this period and this gives this age the name.

  • It was from 1500BC – 600 BC
  • It is divided into 2 parts
  • Rigvedic Age (1500 – 100BC)
  • Post Vedic Age (1000 – 600BC)

Theories related to Aryans

  • According to BalGangadhar Tilak “Aryans came from Arctic region”
  • According to Max Muller “Aryans came from Central Asia region”
  • According to Boghazkoi inscription “Aryans came from Central Asia region”

NOTE – The Boghazkoi inscription is in Asia Minar, Turkey

NOTE – From the inscription we get details of Vedic gods which were “Indra, Mtra, Natsya, Varuna” etc.

NOTE – The initial residence of Aryan was “Sapt – Saindhav Pradesh”

Vedas

  • There are total 4 Vedas
  • Vedas are compiled by “Veda Vyas”

Rig Veda –

  • It is recited by “Hotra/Hotri”
  • It has total 10 Mandals
  • There are total 1028 Hymns in it
  • It is world’s oldest religious book
  • It is written in vedic Sanskrit

10 Mandals –

  • 2 – 7 Mandals are the oldest Mandals, also called “Family/ VanshMandal”
  • 8 – 9 are mixed Mandal
  • 1 & 10 are new Mandals

NOTE –3rd Mandal is related to the “Gayatri Mantra”

NOTE – Gayatri Mantra is about “Lord Sun”

Varna System –

  • It is mentioned in the “Purush Sukta” of 10th Mandal
  • There were 4 Varnas
  • Brahaman
  • Kshatriya
  • Vaishya
  • Shudra

Social life of Rig Vedic age –

  • Male based society
  • Female condition was very good
  • There was no Sati pratha
  • Widow remarriage was allowed
  • Child marriage was not allowed
  • Niyog system was allowed
  • Slave system was there

Yajur Veda –

  • Yajur means “Sacrifice formula/Prayer”
  • It is recited by “Adharvpush”
  • It is related to “Sacrifice formula”
  • It is divided into 2 parts
  • Krishna Yajur Ved
  • Shukla Yajur Ved

NOTE – Krishna Yajur Ved is in “Prose” and Shukla Yajur Ved is in “Poetry”

Sama Veda –

  • It is recited by “Udgata/Udgatri”
  • It is related to “Music”
  • It is also known as “Mother of Indian Classical Music”
  • It is 1st book of music

NOTE – The 1st written evidence of earthquake & famine is found in Sama Veda

NOTE – Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda are collectively known as “Trived”

Atharv Veda –

  • It is recited by “Arthavanga/Brahma”
  • It is related to “black magic/superstition”

NOTE – The 1st written evidence of “Swyamvar sabha” is found in Athrv Veda

Brahamana

  • They explain the hymns of Vedas
  • Written in prose
VedaBrahamana
Rig VedaAitrey & Kaushitaki
Yajur VedaShatpatha & Taitriya
Sama VedaPanchvisha, Chandogaya & Jaimniya
Atharv VedaGopatha

Aranyakas

  • They were written in forests (Aranya)
  • They were written by Sagas
  • They are related to mysticism
  • There are total 7 Aranyakas
VedaAranyaka
Rig VedaAitrey & Kaushitaki
Yajur VedaShatpatha & Taitriya
Sama VedaPanchvisha, Chandogaya & Jaimniya

NOTE – Atharv Veda doesn’t have any Aranyak

Upnishads

  • it means “coming near to teacher for knowledge”
  • it is also known as “Vedanta”
  • it is related to philosophy

NOTE – “Satyamev Jayate” is mentioned in the “Mundakoupnishadh”

Vedic Age Notes

Political life of Vedic Age

Administrative unitHead
KulaKulapa
GramGramini
VisVispati
JanaRajan

Vedic Assembly

It included

  • Sabha
  • Samiti
  • Vidatha
  • Gana

Important Vedic officers

  • Purohit
  • Mahishi
  • Senani

Upvedas

VedaUpveda
Rig VedaAyurveda/ Medicine
Yajur VedaDhanurveda/ Archery
Sama VedaGandharveda/ Music
Athrva VedaShil[veda

Vedic Rivers

Vedic name of riverModern name of river
VitastaJhelum
ParushniRavi
AskaniChenab
ShatudriSutlej
VipasaBeas

NOTE – There were total 40 rivers in the Vedic age

NOTE – In the Nadi Shutak of Rigveda there are 21 rivers

Main gods of Rig Vedic Age

Indra –

  1. God of rain
  2. Fort destroyer
  3. Mentioned 250 times in Rig Veda

Agni –

  1. God of fire
  2. Mentioned 200 times in Rig Veda

Main gods of Post Vedic Age

  1. Brahma
  2. Vishnu
  3. Mahesh

NOTE – Cow was the holy animal of Vedic age

Ashram System

  • It is mentioned in “JabaloUpnishadh”
  • There were total 4 Ashrams
  • Brahmcharya
  • Grihstha
  • Vanaprastha
  • Sanyasi

Epics

There are 2 most famous epics of Vedic age

  1. Ramayana (composed by Valmiki)
  2. Mahabharat (Ved Vyas)

History Notes for UPSC & Govt. Exams – reetPrep

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